Dacian Fortress Sarmizegetusa
Sarmizegetusa Regia was the capital and the most important military, religious and political center of Dacia, before the Roman conquest (106 A.D.). Built on top of a 1.200 meter high mountain, the fortress was the heart of a defensive system including other five citadels, Blidaru, Costesti, Piatra Rosie, Capilna and Blanita. There all are UNESCO world heritage sites.
Sarmizegetusa was built like a citadel, with a living area with private buildings and workshops, and a sacred zone. The civilians lived outside the fortress, in settlements built on artificial terraces. Dacian nobility had running water, brought through ceramic pipes, in their residences, showing a high standard of living. The citadel, having a square shape, build from massive stone blocks, was set on five terraces, covering an area of almost 30.000 m².The sacred zone, the most important and largest of all Dacian sanctuaries, included a number of temples, their foundations supporting columns still visible in regular arrays. The most enigmatic construction at the site is the large circular sanctuary.
The layout of the timber settings resembles the Stonehenge monument. The “Andesite Sun” from the site was probably used as a sundial. This idea is supported by known influences from the Greek culture, included a certain level of knowledge about geometry and astronomy.
Sarmisegetusa was partially destroyed at the end of 102, when Dacia was invaded by the Romans, but it was rebuilt later. The Romans systematically destroyed it again in 106 and deported the inhabitants. The Roman conquerors established a military garrison at Sarmisegetusa Regia. Later, the capital of the Roman Dacia was established 40 km from the ruined Dacian capital, and was named after it, Ulpia Traiana Sarmisegetusa.